Capital was led to use a latent reserve military by means of women workers. As during WWI, women had been drawn into the labour force through the pugilative battle. Additional labour power was made available by the encouragement of the Tory Government of the 1950’s for immigration, from the Carribean particularly. Again, the importance of that should not be underestimated.
We have seen the consequences of a complete market solution for healthcare, when various costs for services have been introduced. Increases in oral charges resulted in a significant reduction in the number and rate of recurrence with which people went to the dentist. The same was true with opticians charges, which was significant given the number of other illnesses that can be recognized by opticians looking into the eyes.
But, in fact, what this shows is that in relation to Health all of the contradictions that apply to Capitalism generally operate here too. The Monopoly of the Truck System, supposed that they could screw their workers by adulterating the products sold to them, for example. His answer was to increase their income significantly, also to promote the thought of “Company Devotion” therefore, with the introduction of other facilities for the worker. The increase in efficiency more than covered the cost.
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As an outcome it could organise campaigns for “Clean Milk”, for example. Clearly, as Engels says, the Big Capitalists recognized the short-sightedness of such penny-pinching methods, however the continued lifestyle of huge amounts of small businesses, didn’t imply those methods didn’t continue. Indeed, the better the larger businesses became, the greater the tiny businesses had to rely on those solutions to stay afloat.
Once more, as Engels argues the introduction of new laws and regulations and handles by the Capitalist State were not directly intended to benefit workers, but did take action in the passions of Big Capital, by forcing the tiny capitalists to conform. In fact, this illustrates the point that Engels makes about those Big Capitalists adopting many of the needs and ideas that the employees themselves had been raising. It was not merely in Britain that this held true.
In the united states, similar developments occurred after WWII, and were reflected in L.B. Johnson’s “Great Society”. Similar advancements occurred across Europe, and a central part of the development in each case was the incorporation of the Investments Unions into the operation of the State, and of Capital. It had been particularly marked in Germany, where the Investments Unions were straight included via the establishment of Works Councils in which workers reps sat alongside the bosses in discussing ways of raising productivity and success. The converse of that could be seen in the early 1980’s with the rise of Thatcher in the Tory Party, and the onset of the Long Wave downswing.
In the 1920’s, Neville Chambelain had developed all those ideas which were to create the primary of the Welfare State. But, the onset of the Long Wave downswing, most following the recession of 1921 notably, and particularly in the depression of the 1930’s, meant that the conditions faced by Capital, in the Capital-Labour relation were fundamentally changed.